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  Map of the Invasion Route and subsequent battle sites. The Roman Republic and Carthaginian Empire at the start of the Second Punic War, 218 BC. The route followed by Hannibal from New Carthage to the lower Rhône and across the Alps is shown in red. While Hannibal’s exact route through the Alps is subject to uncertainty, the most direct approach is along the Rhône to the Drôme River and around to the north of Mt. Viso, across the Col de la Traversette, to the Po River Valley in northern Italia. Scipio’s advance on Massilia (Marseilles) by sea and subsequent retreat to Pisa is traced with double arrows. The site of the Trebbia Battlefield is located just east of the Ticinus River. Lake Trasimene and Cannae are shown with double circles. Adapted from M. Healy, Cannae 216 BC, Campaign Series, D.G. Chandler (Ed.), Osprey Publishing Ltd, Oxford, U.K., 1999, and plate one in The Warmaker, published by IUniverse 2008.
Satellite image of the Western Alps and Rhône Basin showing various proposed invasion routes into Italia. Environmental evidence favors the southern route from the Rhône to the Durance Basin, thence through the Queyras north of Mt. Viso to the Upper Po River. For expanded text see W.C. Mahaney, 2008, “Hannibal’s Odyssey: Environmental Background to the Alpine Invasion of Italia. Gorgias Press, Piscataway, NJ., 221 pp.